نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

بیماری همه‌گیر کووید 19 همه افراد از جمله دانشجویان را تحت تأثیر قرار داده است. کووید 19 به­ دلیل پیامدهای مربوط به سلامت، اقتصاد و زندگی فردی با عوامل استرس‌زای روانشناختی متعددی همراه و ممکن است موجب پریشانی روانشناختی و انزوای اجتماعی شود. هدف این مطالعه بررسی تأثیر سطح دانش و نگرش به کووید 19 بر پریشانی روانشناختی و انزوای اجتماعی دانشجویان بود. این پژوهش مطالعه ­ای مقطعی و بر اساس هدف از نوع کاربردی و از نظر روش جزو تحقیقات توصیفی بود که به ­صورت پیمایشی انجام شد. جامعه آماری کلیه دانشجویان دانشکده تربیت بدنی دانشگاه تبریز در سال تحصیلی 1399-1400 بودند (383 نفر). برای تعیین حجم نمونه از فرمول حجم نمونه کوکران استفاده و با توجه به نتیجه، حداقل تعداد نمونه مورد نیاز 192 نفر برآورد شد. ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات پرسشنامه بود که از 11 تا 16 آذر، 200 دانشجوی رشته تربیت بدنی دانشگاه تبریز در پرسشنامه آنلاین شرکت کردند. این پرسشنامه شامل اطلاعات جمعیت‌شناختی، پرسشنامه استاندارد سطح دانش و آگاهی درباره کووید 19 ماهشواری و همکاران (2020)، پرسشنامه استاندارد نگرش به کووید 19 الحنوای و همکاران (2020)، پرسشنامه استاندارد پریشانی روانی کسلر (2003) و پرسشنامه استاندارد انزوای اجتماعی مدرسی‌یزدی (1393) بود. یافته‌ها نشان داد که در متغیر سطح دانش و آگاهی، افراد با سن بالا، زنان نسبت به مردان، افراد متأهل نسبت به مجرد و دانشجویان دکتری نسبت به سایر مقاطع، سطح دانش و آگاهی بالاتری به کووید 19 داشتند. در متغیر سطح نگرش، افراد با سن بالا، زنان نسبت به مردان، افراد مجرد نسبت به متأهل و دانشجویان کارشناسی نسبت به سایر مقاطع، سطح نگرش بالاتری به کووید 19 داشتند. در متغیر پریشانی روانشناختی، افراد با سن پایین، زنان نسبت به مردان، افراد مجرد نسبت به متأهل و دانشجویان دکتری نسبت به سایر مقاطع، پریشانی روانشناختی بالاتری داشتند. در متغیر انزوای اجتماعی نیز افراد با سن پایین، زنان نسبت به مردان، افراد مجرد نسبت به متأهل و دانشجویان کارشناسی نسبت به سایر مقاطع، انزوای اجتماعی بالاتری داشتند. آزمون فرضیه­ های پژوهش نشان داد که رابطه معکوس و معنا­دار بین سطح دانش و سطح نگرش به کووید 19 با پریشانی روانشناختی و انزوای اجتماعی وجود دارد. همچنین مشخص شد که سطح دانش درباره کووید 19 و سطح نگرش به آن بر پریشانی روانشناختی و انزوای اجتماعی اثر معنا‌دار دارد. بنابراین، بهتر است که رفتارهای پیشگیرانه در سطح جامعه به­ منظور کنترل اپیدمی کووید 19 در نظر گرفته شود و این موضوع مد نظر سیاستگذاران و مسئولان بهداشتی قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Impact of Knowledge Level and Attitude Towards Covid-19 on Psychological Distress and Social Isolation Among the University of Tabriz Faculty of Physical Education Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Houriyhe Dehghanpouri 1
  • Hossein Donyapour 2

1 Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood, Iran

2 Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

چکیده [English]

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected everyone, including college students. Due to the consequences related to health, economy and individual life, Covid-19 is associated with many psychological stressors and may cause psychological distress and social isolation. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of knowledge level and attitudes toward Covid-19 on psychological distress and social isolation among college students. This research was a cross-sectional study and based on the purpose of an applied type, and in terms of method, it was a descriptive research that was conducted as a survey. The statistical population was all physical education students (N=383) of Tabriz University in the academic year 2020-21. Cochran's sample size formula was used to determine the sample size (n=192). The data collection tool was a questionnaire. A total of 200 physical education of Tabriz University took part in an online survey from 1 December to 6 December. The questionnaire included demographic information, a Standard Questionnaire for Knowledge and Awareness Level of Covid-19 by Mahshvari et al. (2020), Standard Questionnaire Attitude towards Covid-19 Al-Hanawi et al. (2020), Kessler Standard Distress Questionnaire (2003) and Standard Questionnaire for Social Isolation of Yazidi School (2014). The findings showed that in the knowledge and awareness level variable, older people, women compared to men, married people compared to single, and doctoral students compared to other levels, had a higher level of knowledge and awareness of Covid-19. In the attitude level variable, older people, women compared to men, single people compared to married people, and undergraduate students compared to other levels, had a higher level of attitude towards Covid-19.  In the variable of psychological distress, young people, women compared to men, single people compared to married people, and doctoral students had higher psychological distress compared to other levels. In the social isolation variable, young people, women compared to men, single people compared to married people, and undergraduate students had higher social isolation compared to other levels. Testing research hypotheses showed that there is a significant inverse relationship between the level of knowledge and the level of attitude towards Covid-19 with psychological distress and social isolation. It was also found that the level of knowledge about Covid-19 and the level of attitude towards Covid-19 have a significant effect on psychological distress and social isolation. Therefore, it is better to consider preventive behaviors at the community level in order to control the Covid-19 epidemic, and this issue should be considered by policy makers and health officials.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • knowledge
  • attitude
  • Covid 19
  • Coronavirus
  • psychological distress
  • social isolation
  • physical education college students
  1. References

    1. Alahdal, H., Basingab, F., & Alotaibi, R. (2020). An analytical study on the awareness, attitude and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 13(10), 1446-1452.
    2. Al-Hanawi, M.K., Angawi, K., Alshareef, N., Qattan, A.M., Helmy, H. Z., Abudawood, Y., ... & Alsharqi, O. (2020A). Knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 among the public in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Frontiers in Public Health, 8.‌
    3. Al-Hanawi, M.K., Mwale, M.L., Alshareef, N., Qattan, A.M., Angawi, K., Almubark, R., & Alsharqi, O. (2020B). Psychological distress amongst health workers and the general public during the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, 13, 733.‌
    4. Alzoubi, H., Alnawaiseh, N., Al-Mnayyis, A., Lubad, M. A., Aqel, A., & Al-Shagahin, H. (2020). COVID-19-knowledge, attitude and practice among medical and non-medical University Students in Jordan. J Pure Appl Microbiol, 14, 17-24.‌
    5. American Psychological APA Dictionary of Psychology. Availableonline: https://dictionary.apa.org/psychologicaldistress(accessed on 6 August 2020).
    6. Anderson, T.M., Sunderland, M., Andrews, G., Titov, N., Dear, B.F., & Sachdev, P.S. (2013). The 10-item Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) as a screening instrument in older individuals. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(7), 596-606.
    7. Andrews, G., & Slade, T. (2001). Interpreting scores on the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 25(6), 494-497.‏
    8. Azlan, A.A., Hamzah, M.R., Sern, T.J., Ayub, S.H., & Mohamad, E. (2020). Public knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia. Plos one, 15(5), e0233668.‌
    9. Baloran, E.T. (2020). Knowledge, attitudes, anxiety, and coping strategies of students during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 1-8.‌
    10. Baoyong, L., & Cheng, C. (2012). Psychological health diathesis assessment system: The development of resilient trait scale for Chinese adults [J]. Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 4.‏
    11. Bäuerle, A., Graf, J., Jansen, C., Musche, V., Schweda, A., Hetkamp, M., ... & Skoda, E.M. (2020). E-mental health mindfulness-based and skills-based ‘CoPE It’intervention to reduce psychological distress in times of COVID-19: study protocol for a bicentre longitudinal study. BMJ Open, 10(8), e039646.‏
    12. Bo, H. X., Li, W., Yang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., ... & Xiang, Y. T. (2020). Posttraumatic stress symptoms and attitude toward crisis mental health services among clinically stable patients with COVID-19 in China. Psychological Medicine, 1-2.‌
    13. Boyraz, G., Legros, D.N., & Tigershtrom, A. (2020). COVID-19 and traumatic stress: The role of perceived vulnerability, COVID-19-related worries, and social isolation. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 76, 102307.‌
    14. Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G.J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet.‏
    15. Chirwa, G.C. (2020). “Who knows more, and why?” Explaining socioeconomic-related inequality in knowledge about HIV in Malawi. Scientific African, 7, e00213.‌
    16. Conversano, C., Di Giuseppe, M., Miccoli, M., Ciacchini, R., Gemignani, A., & Orrù, G. (2020). Mindfulness, age and gender as protective factors against psychological distress during Covid-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychology, 11.‌
    17. Daly, M., & Robinson, E. (2020). Psychological distress and adaptation to the COVID-19 crisis in the United States. Journal of Psychiatric Research.‌
    18. Dawson, D.L., & Golijani-Moghaddam, N. (2020). COVID-19: Psychological flexibility, coping, mental health, and wellbeing in the UK during the pandemic. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 17, 126-134.
    19. Dehghani, A.A. Naseh, D. (2020). The effect of new communication technologies and social capital on the social status of children in the family. Applied Studies in Social Sciences and Sociology, 3 (1), 19-38 [in Persian].
    20. Dilucca, M., & Souli, D. (2020). Knowledge, attitude and practice of secondary school students toward COVID-19 epidemic in Italy: A cross selectional study. BioRxiv.‌
    21. Fallahi, A., Mahdavifar, N., Ghorbani, A., Mehrdadian, P., Mehri, A., Joveini, H., & Shahrabadi, R. (2020). Public knowledge, attitude and practice regarding home Quarantine to Prevent COVID-19 in Sabzevar city, Iran. Journal Mil Med, 22(6), 580-588.‌
    22. Farooq, A., Laato, S., & Islam, A.N. (2020). Impact of online information on self-isolation intention during the COVID-19 pandemic: Cross-sectional study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(5), e19128.‌
    23. Ferdousa, M.Z., Islama, M.S., Sikdera, M.T., & Md, A.S. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh: An online-based cross-sectional study.‌
    24. Fiorillo, A., & Gorwood, P. (2020). The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and implications for clinical practice. European Psychiatry, 63(1).‌
    25. Greenberg, N., Wessely, S., & Wykes, T. (2015). Potential mental health consequences for workers in the Ebola regions of West Africa–a lesson for all challenging environments.
    26. Hamer, M., Kivimaki, M., Stamatakis, E., & Batty, G.D. (2019). Psychological distress and infectious disease mortality in the general population. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 76, 280-283.‏
    27. Hernández-García, I., & Giménez-Júlvez, T. (2020). Assessment of health information about COVID-19 prevention on the internet: Infodemiological study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 6(2), e18717.‏
    28. Ho, C.S., Chee, C.Y., & Ho, R.C. (2020). Mental health strategies to combat the psychological impact of COVID-19 beyond paranoia and panic. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 49(1), 1-3.‏
    29. Holmes, E.A., O'Connor, R.C., Perry, V.H., Tracey, I., Wessely, S., Arseneault, L., ... & Ford, T. (2020). Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: A call for action for mental health science. The Lancet Psychiatry.‌
    30. Hortulanus, R., Machielse, A., & Meeuwesen, L. (2006) Social Isolation in Modern Sociology, New York: Rutledge.
    31. Huang, Y., & Zhao, N. (2020). Mental health burden for the public affected by the COVID-19 outbreak in China: Who will be the high-risk group?. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 1-12.‏
    32. Jiao, J.G., Tang, X.L., Li, H.W., Chen, J., Xiao, Y., & Li, A. (2005). Survey of knowledge of villagers in prevention and control of SARS in Hainan Province. China Tropical Medicine, 4.‏
    33. Kessler, R.C., Andrews, G., Colpe, L.J., Hiripi, , Mroczek, D.K., Normand, S.L.T., Walters, E.E., & Zaslavsky, A.M. (2003). Short screening scales to monitor population prevalence’s and trends in nonspecific psychological distress. Psychological Medicine, 32 (6), 959-976.
    34. Khasawneh, A.I., Humeidan, A.A., Alsulaiman, J.W., Bloukh, S., Ramadan, M., Al-Shatanawi, T. N., ... & Saleh, T. (2020). Medical students and COVID-19: Knowledge, attitudes, and precautionary measures. A descriptive study from Jordan. Frontiers in Public Health, 8.‌
    35. Lau, J.T., Griffiths, S., Choi, K.C., & Tsui, H.Y. (2010). Avoidance behaviors and negative psychological responses in the general population in the initial stage of the H1N1 pandemic in Hong Kong. BMC Infectious Diseases, 10(1), 139.‏
    36. Lin, C.Y., Broström, A., Griffiths, M.D., & Pakpour, A.H. (2020). Investigating mediated effects of fear of COVID-19 and COVID-19 misunderstanding in the association between problematic social media use, psychological distress, and insomnia. Internet Interventions, 21, 100345.‌
    37. Maarefvand, M., Hosseinzadeh, S., Farmani, O., Safarabadi Farahani, A., & Khubchandani, J. (2020). Coronavirus outbreak and stress in Iranians. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(12), 4441.‌
    38. Maheshwari, S., Gupta, P., Sinha, R., & Rawat, P. (2020). Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among medical students: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Acute Disease, 9(3), 100.‌
    39. Masoudnia, I. (2019). The effect of dependence on cyberspace on social isolation of high school students. Social Issues of Iran, 10 (2), 299-322 [in Persian].
    40. Maunder, R.G., Lancee, W.J., Balderson, K.E., Bennett, J.P., Borgundvaag, B., Evans, S., ... & Hall, L. M. (2006). Long-term psychological and occupational effects of providing hospital healthcare during SARS outbreak. Emerging infectious diseases12(12), 1924.
    41. Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S., Colasanti, M., Ferracuti, S., Napoli, C., & Roma, P. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Italian people during the COVID-19 pandemic: Immediate psychological responses and associated factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), 3165.‌
    42. Modaresi Yazdi, F.S., Farahmand, M., & Afshani, S.A. (2017). Study of social isolation of single girls and socio-cultural factors affecting it (study of single girls over 30 years old in Yazd). Social Issues of Iran, 8 (1), 121-143. [in Persian].
    43. Moore, K.A., & Lucas, J.J. (2020). COVID‐19 distress and worries: The role of attitudes, social support, and positive coping during social isolation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice.‏
    44. Moradi, G., & Zamani, M. (2014). Investigating the role of social phobia in social isolation of rural women studied in Dalahu villages, Strategic Research on Security and Social Order, 3 (1), 95-115 [in Persian].
    45. Nasirzadeh, Akhondi, M., Jamalizadehnooq, A., & Khorramnia, S. (2020). A survey on stress, anxiety, depression and resilience due to the prevalence of COVID-19 among Anar City Households in 2020: A Short Report. JRUMS. 19 (8) :889-898 URL: http://journal.rums. ac.ir/ article-1-5380-fa.html.
    46. Nasirzadeh, M., & Aligol, M. (2020). Assessmentof knowledge, attitude, and factors associated with the preventive behaviors of Covid-19 in Qom, Iran, in 2020. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal, 14(7), 50-57.‏
    47. Nemati, M., Ebrahimi, B., & Nemati, F. (2020). Assessment of Iranian nurses’ knowledge and anxiety toward COVID-19 during the current outbreak in Iran. Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases, 15(COVID-19).‌
    48. Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., & de Luis-García, R. (2020). Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry Research, 113108.‌
    49. Peng, Y., Pei, C., Zheng, Y., Wang, J., Zhang, K., Zheng, Z., & Zhu, P. (2020). Knowledge, attitude and practice associated with COVID-19 among university students: A cross-sectional survey in China.‌
    50. Petzold, M.B., Bendau, A., Plag, J., Pyrkosch, L., Mascarell Maricic, L., Betzler, F., ... & Ströhle, A. (2020). Risk, resilience, psychological distress, and anxiety at the beginning of the COVID‐19 pandemic in Germany. Brain and Behavior, 10(9), e01745.‌
    51. Prasad Singh, J., Sewda, A., & Shiv, D.G. (2020). Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices of students regarding the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Health Management, 22(2), 281-290.‌
    52. Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M., Wang, Z., Xie, B., & Xu, Y. (2020). A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, 33(2).‌
    53. Ruiz-Frutos, C., Ortega-Moreno, M., Dias, A., Bernardes, J.M., García-Iglesias, J.J., & Gómez-Salgado, J. (2020). Information on COVID-19 and psychological distress in a sample of non-health workers during the pandemic period. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(19), 6982.‌
    54. Sallam, M., Dababseh, D., Al-Haidar, A., Ababneh, N.A., Bakri, F.G., & Mahafzah, A. (2020). Conspiracy beliefs are associated with lower knowledge and higher anxiety levels regarding COVID-19 among students at the University of Jordan. MedRxiv.‏
    55. Saravanan, C., Mahmoud, I., Elshami, W., & Taha, M.H. (2020). Knowledge, anxiety, fear, and psychological distress about COVID-19 among university students in the United Arab Emirates. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11.‌
    56. Talevi, D., Socci, V., Carai, M., Carnaghi, G., Faleri, S., Trebbi, E., … & Pacitti, F. (2020). Mental health outcomes of the CoViD-19 pandemic. Rivista Di Psichiatria, 55(3), 137-144.‌
    57. Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C.S., & Ho, R.C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.‌
    58. Wester, M., & Giesecke, J. (2019). Ebola and healthcare worker stigma. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 47(2), 99-104.‏
    59. Yaghoubi, H. (2015). Psychometric properties of the 10-question version of the Kessler psychological Questionnaire. Journal of Applied Psychological Research. 4(6), 45-57 [in Persian].
    60. Zhang, J., Lu, H., Zeng, H., Zhang, S., Du, Q., Jiang, T., & Du, B. (2020). The differential psychological distress of populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.‌

     Zhong, B.L., Luo, W., Li, H. M., Zhang, Q. Q., Liu, X. G., Li, W. T., & Li, Y. (2020). Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. International journal of biological sciences16(10), 1745.