نویسنده

استاد دانشگاه تهران

‎10.52547/irphe.27.4.1

چکیده

موفقیت نهادهای ملی ارزیابی و اعتبارسنجی کیفیت به اقدامات آنها در انجام دادن ارزیابی برونی بستگی دارد. به­ رغم این واقعیت، بیش از دو دهه از آغاز کوشش­ ها در ارزیابی مستمر در آموزش­عالی ایران می­ گذرد، اما ارزیابی برونی در آموزش ­عالی (غیرپزشکی) هنوز به ­طور سازمان ­یافته انجام نشده است. علاوه بر آن، در خصوص فرایند ارزیابی مستمر نیز دلبستگی لازم در مدیران و اعضای هیئت­ علمی به­ وجود نیامده است. در راستای ارزیابی مستمر، سه نهاد ملی (آموزش عالی جامع، پزشکی و مهندسی) در سطح کشور دایر شده است. این نهادها یاری دادن به فرایند ارزیابی درونی و اجرای برونی را در زمره وظایف خود منظور داشته ­اند، اما به استثنای نهاد ایجادشده در آموزش پزشکی، دو نهاد دیگر تا کنون نتوانسته ­اند شرایط لازم برای تبدیل شدن به نهاد ملی ارزیابی و اعتبارسنجی را احراز کنند. در یک مطالعه، رسالت نهادهای ملی ارزیابی، چارچوب مورد استفاده آنها، موانع اجرای ارزیابی درونی و فرایند حایز شدن شرایط برای تبدیل شدن به نهاد ملی بررسی شد. برای این منظور، سه سؤال پژوهشی مطرح و با استفاده از روش مطالعه موردی به آنها پاسخ داده شد. نتایج مطالعه در این مقاله عرضه شده است. نتایج نشان داد که "نهاد ملی ارزیابی آموزش پزشکی عمومی" نسبت به ارزیابی کیفیت دوره دکتری پزشکی عمومی موفق بوده است. اما، وضعیت موجود نهاد نظارت و ارزیابی آموزش­ عالی (ناتک) و نهاد ارزشیابی آموزش مهندسی تا وضعیت مطلوب فاصله بسیاری دارند. ضمن برشمردن ده عامل بازدارنده ارزیابی مستمر، برای کاهش فاصله یادشده پیشنهادهایی عرضه شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Rethinking about continuous quality assessment in Iran higher education: Need for strengthening national evaluation agencies and framework revision

نویسنده [English]

  • Abbas Bazargan

Professor, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Success of national institutions of quality assessment (NIQA) and accreditation of quality depends on the external quality assurance (EQA) processes. In spite of the fact, it is more than two decades that continuous quality assessment started in higher education in Iran. Nevertheless, the external in higher education quality assessment (non-medical), has not been done in an organized way yet. At the national level, three institutions have been established to act as national quality assurance agency (QAA):1) comprehensive higher education, 2) medical education, and 3) engineering education. The QAA in medical education has been active in conducting EQA. However, the other two NIQA have not yet been able to carry out EQA and therefore not eligible for being recognized as an accredited QAA agency.  Based on the above, a research project was conducted to find out the actual and desired states of the NIQA in Iran. In doing so, three research questions were framed and answered in the research project. This article reports the findings of the research project. The results indicated that the National Institution of Quality Assessment of general medical education has been successful. However, there is room for improvement of the other two NIQA. In this regard, factors which are affecting such situation are analyzed and towards improving the conditions of these two NIQA, a set of measures are proposed.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • National institution
  • External assurance
  • Accreditation
  • Barriers to continuous assessment
  • Higher Education
1. ACER (Australian Council for Educational Research (2008). Attracting, engaging, and retaining: New conversation about learning. Australian Student Engagement Report. Cambridge: ACER.
2. APQR (Asia-Pacific Quality Register) (2021). Eligibility-Chiba Principles. Retrieved on 24.6.2021 from www.apqr.co./ appeal/ eligibility-chiba-pricipales.
3. Bazargan, A. (2021). A Glance at the expansion of higher education, number of universities, and students in Iran. Q. J. on Book Review, Cultural-Social Affairs, No. 69, 13-21.
4. Bazargan, A. (2020). Educational Evaluation (18th ed.). Tehran: SAMT.
5. Bazargan, A., & Alavi, A. (2019). Research Project Report: A Study of Factors Impediment to Quality Assessment in Engineering Education. Iran Society for Engineering Education Newsletter, No. 35(Aban), Retrieved on 28.8.2021 from https://www.isee.ir/fa/Content/7469 [in Persian].
6. Bazargan, A., & Farasatkhah, M. (2019). Monitoring and Evaluation in Higher Education (3rd ed.). Tehran: SAMT [in Persian].
7. Bazargan, A. (2006). Application of Educational Evaluation in Improving the Quality of Higher Education with Emphasis on Medical Education. ecretariat of Monitoring, Evaluation and Expansion of Medical Education Universities. Tehran: Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education.
8. Bazargan, A., et al. (2007). The Process of Implementing Self-evaluation in University Departments (A practical guide). Tehran: Dooran Publications [in Persian].
9. Bazargan, A., et al. (2000). An appropriate approach to internal evaluation for enhancing departmental quality in Universities of Medical Sciences. J. of Psychology and Education (U.T.), 5(2), 1-26.
10. Bazargan, A. (1995). University internal evaluation and its application in improving higher education quality. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, ,3(3 & 4), 49-70 [in Persian].
11. CGME (Council for General Medical Education) (2017). National Standards for General Medical Education Program, I.R. Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education [in Persian].
12. CHEA (Council for Higher Education Accreditation) (2015). International Quality Principles. CHEA International Quality Group. Retrieved on 12.08.2020 from https://www.chea.org.
13. Costes, N., et al. (2010). Quality Assurance and Transparency Tools: EQAN Workshop Report 15. Retrieved on 15.7.21 from https:// eric.ed.gov/?id=ED541662.
14. Curaj, A., et al. (2015). The European Higher Education Area: Between critical reflections and future policies. Dordrecht: Springer.
15. Einollahi, B. (2000). The role of internal evaluation in improving the quality of education in of Medical Sciences Universities. J. of Faculty of Medicine, 58, (Special Issue of the Papers presented at the 4th National Conference on Medical Education), 54-55.
16. Eshaghi, F., & Mohammadi, R. (2004 May). A study of the process of internal evaluation in the Iran higher education system. Paper presented at the 9th Iran Conference on Assessment of Quality in University Systems, Tehran: Farhangian University, 13-14 May, 2004 [in Persian].
17. Farasatkhah, M. (2008). A study on the outcomes of internal evaluation on the planning for improvement of Iranian universities. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 14(3),145-175 [in Persian].
18. INQAAHE (International Network of Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education) (2021). INQAAHE Guidelines of Good Practice and Procedure Manual. Retrieved on 24.6.2021 from www.inqaahe.org/ guidelines-good-practice.ggp.
19. IRPHE (Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education) (2021). Statistics of Higher Education (Direct contact with Statistics and IT Research Dept. on 25-3-1400) [in Persian].
20. IRPHE (Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education) (2020). Iran Student Engagement Network. Retrieved on 20-9-1399 from https://irphe.ac.ir/[in Persian].
21. IAIEE (Iran Accreditation Institute for Engineering Education) (2019). Objectives of the Institute. Retrieved on 20.2.2019 from http:// iaiee.ir.
22. Mehralizadeh, Y. (2017). Pathology of Departmental Internal Evaluation: The Case of S. Chamran University. In S. Mohammadzadeh (Ed.). A Glance at the Experiences of Continuous Evaluation in Higher Education in Iran: Horizons and Prospects. (pp37-50). Tehran: IRPHE [in Persian].
23. Memarian, H. (2011). Internal assessment of Iran’s engineering education programs. Iranian J. of Engineering Education, 13(51), 1-30 [in Persian].
24. Montazer, Gh. (2019). Sanandaj Manual: A Model for evaluation of State Research Institutions. Tehran: Center for Monitoring and Evaluation of Higher Education, MSRT [in Persian].
25. MSRT (Ministry of Science, Research and Technology) (2021). Board of Provincial Higher Education Monitoring, Evaluation and QA. Bylaws. Retrieved on 30-4-2021 from https://nezarat.msrt.ir/fa/ regulation [in Persian].
26. MHTME (Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education) (2021). Secretariat for General Medical Education Program. Retrieved on 18-5-2021 from: https://scume.behdasht.gov.ir [in Persian].
27. Nasrollahi, F., et al. (2019). A study of academic members perception related to the quality of conducting departmental internal evaluation at S. Badeshi University. J. of Educational Planning Studies, 7 (15), 121-147.
28. Noda, A. (2021). How instructional learning outcomes assessment is related to quality assurance and accreditation? The case of Japan. Paper Presented at the 15th Iran International Conference on Quality Assurance in University Systems (QAUS-2021), Kurdistan University, Sanandaj, Iran, Nov., 10-11, 2021.
29. Noda, A., et al. (2018). Restructuring quality assurance frameworks: A comparative study between IIAD-QE in Japan and HEEACT in Taiwan. Higher Education and Development, 12(1), 2-18.
30. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) (2013). Assessment of Learning Outcomes. Paris: OECD.
31. Schwab, K. (2016). The Fourth Industrial Revolution. Geneva: World Economic Forum.
32. Stella, A. (n.d.). The Chiba Principles: Appendix 2: A Framework for Higher Education Quality Assurance Principles in the Asia Pacific Region. In A Survey Analysis on the Developments in the APQN Membership. Retrieved on 12.10.2020 from https://www.apqn.org/ images/Chiba_Analysis_Report_2010.pdf.
33. Tomllison, M. (2017). Conception of the value of higher education in measured markets. Higher Education, 75(1), DOI: 10.1007/s10734-0165-6.
34. Uvalic-Trumbic, S., & Martin, M. (2021). A New Generation of External Quality Assurance: Dynamics of change and innovative approaches. Paris: IIEP/UNESCO.
35. Woodhouse, D. (2011). Success Factors in the Implementation of QA Systems: Institutional and Agencies. Paper presented at the 5th Iran International Conference on Quality Assessment in University Systems, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, 27-4-2021.
36. World Federation of Medical Education (2007). WFME Global Standards for Quality Improvement in Medical Education. Quality Assurance Task Force. Copenhagen, WFME Office. University of Copenhagen (Denmark).