گسترش کمّی آموزش عالی با تأکید بر پیامدهای اجتماعی؛ نظریه‌ای داده‌ بنیاد

نویسنده

گروه مدیریت آموزش عالی، مؤسسه پژوهش و برنامهریزی آموزش عالی

چکیده

دانشگاه بسان دستاورد جهانی نواندیش در گذار تحولات سالیان گذشته دستخوش تغییرات زیادی از جمله گسترش کمّی آموزش عالی و افزایش پذیرش دانشجویان در رشته‌های مختلف شده و همزمان با این پدیده جهانی بافت آموزش عالی ایران نیز تغییرات مشابهی داشته است. دانشگاه در قالب نهادی اجتماعی پس از ورود به بافتهای مختلف پیامدهای اجتماعی با خود به همراه دارد که بسیاری از  آنها در رده عوامل قابل مشاهده قرار نمی‌گیرد که گاه از نظر شاخصهای کمّی نمی­توان آنها را اندازه‌گیری کرد. از این‌رو، در این پژوهش برای درک پیامدهای اجتماعی گسترش کمّی آموزش عالی، با استفاده از بنیان نظری تفسیرگرایی، در پژوهشی از نوع کیفی، با به‌کارگیری رویکردهای نظریه‌پردازی داده‌بنیاد و پژوهش مبتنی بر روایت و روش‌ مصاحبه عمیق بدون ساختار، از سه دسته داده‌بخش بهره برده شد که شامل 54 مرد و زن در سه گروه عضو هیئت علمی، فعال اجتماعی و دانشجو از سه استان گیلان، قم و سیستان و بلوچستان بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بالا رفتن سطح دسترسی مردم به آموزش عالی به­عنوان مطالبه‌ای همگانی حاصل از انباشت نسلی و مبتنی بر قانون اساسی آغازگر سیاستهای گسترش کمّی بوده است که از منظر مشارکت‌کنندگان ردپای آن بر بالا بردن سطح آگاهی، رشد و توسعه‌ شهری، تغییر در سبک زندگی، شکل‌گیری هنجارهای نوین اجتماعی، بی‌ارزش شدن مدرک تحصیلی و دانشگاه، کاهش چشمگیر کیفیت آموزش عالی و اثرهای آن در بحران افزایش منابع انسانی ناکارآمد و افزایش بیکاری­های منطقه‌ای دیده می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Higher education expansion with emphasis on social impact: a grounded theory approach

نویسنده [English]

  • Somaye Fereidouni

igher Education Administration Department, Institute for Research and Planning in Higher Education

چکیده [English]

University, as an achievement of modern world, has experienced broad range of changes like quantitative expansion of higher education institutions and increasing number of students in different majors. Simultaneously, with this global phenomenon, the context of Iranian higher education had same changes as well. The university, in the form of a social institution, has social implications after entering various contexts which many of them are not visible and measurable by quantitative indicators. Therefore, to understand the social implications of quantitative expansion of higher education, a theory based interpretation research method was designed. A qualitative research approach, grounded theory methodology, and unstructured- interviews were applied. In this research, 54 informers from three groups of social activists, university students and faculties in three province of Guilan, Ghom, and Sistan and Baluchistan were participated. The results showed that increasing access to higher education as a public demand, generational accumulation and constitution was the initiator of quantitative expansionary policies in Iran. According to participants' points of view, these policies resulted in improving people conciseness, urban development, significantly lowering the quality of higher education,  changes on life style, devalue of degree and university, inefficient  human resources cricis and increasing regional unemployment which known as social consequences of higher education expansion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Higher Education
  • social institution
  • Quantitative expansion
  • Social consequences
  • grounded theory
  • Iran
1. Akbari Takhtameshloo, J. (2011). Methodological and philosophical approach of aabermas. Quarterly Journal of Science Philosophy, (1), 1-36 (in Persian).
2. Arjmandi, G.R., & Samiee, H. (2007). Reasons for quantitative expansion and its consequences according to experts’ points of views. Quarterly Journal of Research in Educational Systems, (2-3), 91-110 (in Persian).
3. Boustani, D., & Mohamadpour, A. (2010).The extend of Foucault’s school. Journal of Social Sciences (Biannual), 6(1), 53-99 (in Persian).
4. Baratti, M., Checchi, D., & De Blasio, G. (2008). Does the expansion of higher education increase the equality of educational opportunities? Evidence from Italy. Journal of Labor, 22(1), 53-88.
5. Brennan, J. (2011). Higher education and social change: Researching the ‘end times’ higher education and society in changing times. Looking back and looking forward edited by John Brennan and Tarla Shah (2011). Open University, Cheri, 6-12. Retrieved from www.open.ac.uk/cheri.
6. Charmaz, K., & Brayant, A. (2010). Grounded theory. Retrived from https://pingpong.ki.se/public/pp/public_courses/course15601/published/1464009612718/resourceId/17787549/content/UploadedResources/Charmaz%202010%20grounded%20theory.pdf.
7. Charmaz, K. (2010). Constructing grounded theory. London: SAGE Publication Ltd.
8. Cochrane, A., & Williams, R. (2010). The role of higher education in social and cultural transformation. Centre for Higher Education Research and Information, The Open University, London.
9. Deer, C. (2002). The expansion of higher education: Economic necessity or hyperinflation. Oxford Centre for Higher Education Policy Studies, Retrieved from http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/162758.
10. Draucker, C., Martsolf, D., Ross, R., & Rusk, T. (2017). Theoretical sampling and category development in grounded theory. Qualitative Health Research, 17(8), 1137-1148.
11. Ebrahim, E., Beheshti, S., & Keshavarz, S. (2010) Criticism of derrida’s educational philosophy. Journal of New Educational Approach, 11(1), 147-168 (in Persian).
12. Fereidouni, S. (2015). Females narrative about academic life: Local female empowerment theory through higher education. Jamee Shenasan Press, Tehran (in Persian).
13. Fereidouni, S., Mehran, G., & Mansourian, Y. (2015). Female empowerment in Iran: The voice of Iranian university students. Higher Education Quarterly, 69(4), 366-385.
14. Gharoon, M. (2014). Policay of higher education expansion during last years; Capacity developing or resources wasting. Journal of Management and Developing, 27(2), 3-28 (in Persian).
15. Grebennikov, L., & Skaines, I. (2009). Gender and higher education experience: A case study. Higher Education Research & Development, 28(1), 71-84.
16. Groups of Writers (2017). Transformation and statues of population in Republic Islamic of Iran. National Population Studies and Comprehensive Management Institute Press. Spring (in Persian).
17. Jafari, D., Saeedi, A., & Maniee, R. (2015). Statistical book of higher education. Institute of Research and Planing in Higher Education Press, Tehran, Iran (in Persian).
18. J.Petty, N., P.Thomson, O., & Stew, G. (2012). Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 1: Introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods. Journal of Manual Therapy, 17(4), 267-274.
19. J.Petty, N., P.Thomson, O., & Stew, G. (2012). Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 2: Introducing qualitative research methodologies and methods. Journal of Manual Therapy, 17(5), 378-84.
20. Keshavarz, B. (2010). Statues and roles of social classes in Iran (1980-1990). Journal of Politics, 41(3), 247-263 (in Persian).
21. Mills, J., Bonner, A., & Francis, K. (2006). The development of constructivist grounded theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 1-10.
22. Nojoumian, A.A. (2003). Paradoxical logic of Jacques Derrida’s opinion. Journal of Humanities, (39-40), 119-128 (in Persian).
23. Salehi, E. (2001). A study of expansion of higher education in Iran with particular references to women's participation. (PhD Thesis). University of Bath.
24. Salehi Omran, E., Ebrahimi, Gh., & Hoseinzadeh, M. (2010). Study of factors and motivets of expansion of universities and none profit and none govemental higher education institutions in Iran. Case Study: Mazandaran Province. Journal Iranian Social Studies, 11(3), 83-108 (in Persian).
25. Salimi, H. (2002). Higher education expansion and political transformation in Iran. Journal of Low and Politics Research, (8), 117-141 (in Persian).
26. Shyam Sharma, R. (2015, June). Role of universities in development of civil society and social transformation. 21 June 2015, 17th International Academic Conference, Vienna. Retrieved from: https://ideas.repec.org/p/sek/iacpro/2604181.html.
27. Tafassoli, F. (2010). Capitalism system from Carl Max and Max Veber’s points of views. Journal of Humanities, 4(2), 79-92 (in Persian).
28. Windolf, P. (1992). Cycles of expansion in higher education 1870 - 1985: An international comparison. Journal of Higher Education, (23), 3-19.