نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 دانشجوی دکتری رشته مدیریت آموزشی دانشگاه سمنان

چکیده

هدف اصلی این پژوهش بررسی ادراک اعضای هیئت علمی از حرفه­ای بودن در نظام آموزش عالی ایران بود. در این پژوهش که با رویکرد کیفی انجام شد، مشارکت کنندگان اعضای هیئت علمی گروههای مختلف آموزشی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد بودند که ­به­صورت هدفمند انتخاب شدند. تعیین حجم نمونه بر مبنای اشباع نظری و مصاحبه با 17 مشارکت­کننده صورت پذیرفت. جمع­آوری اطلاعات از طریق مصاحبه نیمه ساخت یافته با مراعات اصول اجرای مصاحبه و با تأکید بر اصول اخلاقی انجام شد. برای تحلیل مضمونها و مفاهیم از تحلیل خُرد ترکیبی استفاده شد که ترکیبی از کدگذاری باز و کدگذاری محوری است. یافته­ها به­شکل نوآورانه­ای ادراک اعضای هیئت علمی از حرفه­ای بودن را نشان داد. از این منظر، عضو هیئت علمی دارای 6 تعهد آموزشی، پژوهشی، ارتباطی، اخلاق حرفه­ای، شخصیتی و سازمانی و 14 وظیفه است. در تعهد آموزشی وظیفه­های شایستگیهای ویژه، قابلیتهای فناورانه، قاعده­مند ساختن آموزش و در تعهد پژوهشی وظیفه­ ارتقای اعتماد به نفس حرفه­ای در تولید علم ناب و در تعهد ارتباطی وظیفه­های در معرض بودن و توسعه چند وجهی ارتباطات و در تعهد اخلاقی وظیفه تابعیت از ارزشهای دانشگاهی به­منزله توصیف­کننده­های سلامت رفتار و در تعهد شخصیتی وظیفه فراگیری نیازهای غالب و در تعهد سازمانی وظیفه فهم سازمانی، مهم­ترین نشانه­های حرفه­ای بودن عضو هیئت علمی تشخیص داده شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The perception of faculty members on being professional in Iran's higher education system

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Ahanchian 1
  • Elham Soleimani 2

1 Department of Education, Ferdowsi Mashhad University

2 Doctoral student in Educational Administration, Semnan University,

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this research was to investigate the perception of faculty members on being professional in Iran's higher education system. A qualitative research was chosen for this study. Participants were faculty members from different departments in University of Mashhad who were selected purposefully. Sampling was determined through theoretical saturation and interviews with 17 individuals.  Following the principles of ethical interviewing, data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews. For analysis of the themes and concepts, a combination of micro-analysis was used, which combines open coding and axial coding. The findings showed in an innovative way, the perception of faculty members on being professional. From this perspective, a faculty member had six educational commitments including teaching, research, communication, professional ethics, personality and organizational as well as 14 duties. In educational commitment, duties were "special merit", "technological capabilities", "regulation of the training", "research commitment" and "promoting professional confidence in the production of pure science". In relationship commitment," exposure" and "development of multifaceted relations, the moral obligation, "citizenship of academic value as describing the behavior of health"; in personality commitment, "the dominant learning needs", and in organizational commitment, "institutional understanding" were the most indicators of faculty members' professionalism.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • University
  • Indicators of professionalism
  • faculty member
  • Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
  • Iran
1. Ackfelt, A.L., & Coote, L.V. (2005). A study of organizational citizenship behavior in retair setting. Journal of Business Research, 158(2), 151-159.
2. Azizi, N.A. (2010). Professional ethics in higher education: Reflection on strategies to improve ethical standards in university education. J. Strategy Cult, 3(8,9),173- 201(in Persian).
3. Baasandorj, D. (2010, November). Faculty development program needs at Mongolian State University: Content and strategies. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from www.ProQuest.com, UMI 3441111838.
4. Bradley, A.B., Chyka, P.A., Fitzgerald, W.L., Hak, L.J., Miller, D., Parker, R.B., Phelps, S.J., Wood, G.C., & Gourley, D.R. (2006). A comprehensive approach to faculty development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(2), 1-6.
5. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
6. Caffarella, R.S., & Zinn, L.F. (1999). Professional development for faculty: A conceptual framework of barriers and supports. Innovative Higher Education, 4(23).
7. Cheetman, G., & Chivers, G. (1996). Towrads a holistic model of professional competence. Journal of European Industrial Training, 20(5), 20-30.
8. Conklin, M.H., & Dessele, S.P. (2007). Job turnover intentions among pharmacy faculty. American Journal of Pharmacetical Education, Alexandria, (71) 4, 1-9.
9. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2000). The “what” and “why” of the goal pursuits. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 212-219.
10. Diaz, M.J.F., & Santaolalla, R.C. (2010). Faculty attitudes and training needs to respond the new European.
11. Drummond, Y., Michele, N., Charlotte, M., & Matthew, N. (2010). A comprehensive faculty development model for nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26 (3), 152-161.
12. Edjtehadi, M., Ghorchian, N., Jaafari, P., & Shafizadeh, H. (2012). Identifying dimensions and components of faculty member's developments in order to present of a conceptual model. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 17 (4), 21-26 (in Persian).
13. Erdhiem, J., Wang, M., & Zickar, M.J. (2006). Linking the big five personality constructs to rganizational commitment. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 41(5), 959 - 970.
14. Erisen, Y., Celikoz, N., Kapicioglu, M.O.K., Akyol, C., & Atas, S. (2010). The needs for professional of academic staff at vocational education faculties on Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1431-1436.
15. Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). Translated by: Hadi Jalili, Tehran: Nashre Ney (in Persian).
16. Gandolfo, A. (1997). Identifying lurking alligators: An essay on the ethical dimensions of faculty development. Innovative Higher Education, 22(2), 135-150.
17. Geist, J. R. (2002). Predictors of faculty trust in elementary schools: Enabling bureaucracy, teacher professionalism, and academic press. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Ohio State University.
18. Ghasemi, J., Hosseini, M., & Hejazi, Y. (2009). Analysis the effective factors on success of faculty member`s university outreach services in agricultural faculties of Iran. Journal of Higher Education, 2(1), 1-20(in Persian).
19. Gholifar, E., Hedjazi, S., & Hosseyni, S. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis of required professional faculty skills for job success from Iran’s colleges of agriculture faculty member's perspectives. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 16(3), 125-141(in Persian).
20. Gizir, S., & Simsek, H. (2005). Communication in an academic context. Higher Education, 50(2), 197-221.
21. Glauser, P., & Hillary, M. (2010). A case study of university professors ‘perceptions of their experiences with faculty development. Retrieved on 20(6), 2011 from: http://dwb.unl.edu/diss/Glauser/Glauser.pdf.
22. Guff, M. (1976). Stage well- desigened saturday session and they will com technology connection. Retrieved from www.ambpeds.org.
23. Hassani, M. (2014). Developing a structural model for evaluation of faculty members core competencies in Urmia University (using of analytic hierarchy process). Quarterly Journal of Career & Organi- zational Counseling, 6(18), 55-75.
24. Horta, H. (2009). Holding a post - doctoral position before becoming a faculty member: Does it bring benefits for the scholarly enterprise. Higher Education (58), 689-721.
25. Hosseini, S.M. (2000). Strategies and methods to promote and develop the capabilities and skills of faculty in universities, Proceedings of the First Seminar of Higher Education in Iran. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University, 41-71 (in Persian).
26. Jamshidi, L. (2007). The study of faculty members’ growth in a big state university and the way to progress it continuously. (Master's dissertation). Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran (in Persian).
27. Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Who I am in how I teach is the message. Prospects of change in higher education. Towards new qualities and relevance: Festschrift for Matthias Wesseler (pp. 161–171). Frankfurt a. M.: IKO-Verlag.
28. Keller, H. (2001). The new demographics of higher educations. 24(3), 219-235.
29. Laursen, S., & Rocque, B. (2009). Faculty development for institutional change: Lessons from an advance project. The Magazine of Higher Learning,41(2).
30. McLean, M., Cilliers, F., & Van Wyk, J. M. (2008). Faculty development: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Medical Teacher, 30(6), 555-584.
31. Mesarosova, M., & Mesaros, P. (2012). Learning to learn competency and its relationship to cognitive competencies of university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4273-4278.
32. Mohammadpour, A. (2010). Methods the way. Tehran: Sociologists (in Persian).
33. Mohebzadegan, Y., Pardakhtchi, M.H., Ghahramani, M., & Farasatkhah, M., (2014). Developing a model for faculty development approach based on grounded theory. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education,19 (4), 1-25(in Persian).
34. Nazarzadeh, M., Zare, J., PoorKarimi, J., Abel, KH., & Zaker Salehi, G. H. (2016). Faculty competence in international exchange programs. Approach Journal, Issue 63(in Persian).
35. Nourshahi, N. )2014). Factors affecting the professional development of faculty and offer ways to improve it. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 20(3), 95-120(in Persian).
36. Pourkarimi, J. (2009). Desighn a model for faculty development in Jahad Daneshgahi. (Doctoral dissertation). Tehran: Tarbiat Moalem University (in Persian. (
37. Qiuyan, T., & Qin, H. (2009). Analysis on the competency model of the lecturers in the application oriented university. Retrieved from www.seiofbluemountain.com.
38. Resnik, D. B. (1983). The ethics of science. NY: Rout Ledge.
39. Roelofs, E., & Sanders, P. (2007). Towards a framework for assessing teacher competence. European Journal of Vocational Training, 40(1), 123-139.
40. Roscoe, J. (2010). Continuing professional development in higher education. Human Resource Development International, 5(1), 3-9.
41. Rose Grant, M. (2002). Faculty development in publicly supported two- year colleges, community college. Journal of Research and Practice, 793-807.
42. Sadeghi, N. (2008). An approach to continuous professional development of teachers: Applications of focus groups interviews. Journal of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 38 (2), 47-75 (in Persian).
43. Schmidt, M. (2010, August). Development and validation of a competency model for pre‐service teachers. Paper presented at the second meeting of the earli sig18 Educational Effectiveness, Leuven, 25‐27 August.
44. Sharifi, S., Salimi, G., & Ahmadi, A. (2011). Studying the relationship between personality traits and organizational commitment of principals and teachers in elementary schools, middle and high Khansar city. New Approaches in Educational Management, 1(4), 6-81 (in Persian).
45. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundation of the new reform. Harward Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
46. Strauss & Corbin (2011). Basics of qualitative research. Translated by: Ebrahim Afshar. Tehran: Reed Publishing (in Persian).
47. Tahazadeh, M. (2013). Organizational loyalty. Wave Magazine Year, 6 (in Persian).
48. Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 417-447.
49. Verginica, N. (2012). Professional development of the university teacher inventory of methods necessary for continuing training. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33,1003 - 1007.
50. Wangyi, D. (2006). The structure dimensions of the competency of the college teachers. Exploration of the Higher Education, 4, 89-92.
51. Zahedi, S., & Bazargan, A. (2014). Opinion of faculty members about needs their professional development and practices. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 67, 89-96 (in Persian).
52. Zahedi, S., & Bazargan, A. (2014). Take the concept of professional development of faculty and successful experiences in planning and implementation. A Higher Education, 21, 7-26 (in Persian).
1. Ackfelt, A.L., & Coote, L.V. (2005). A study of organizational citizenship behavior in retair setting. Journal of Business Research, 158(2), 151-159.
2. Azizi, N.A. (2010). Professional ethics in higher education: Reflection on strategies to improve ethical standards in university education. J. Strategy Cult, 3(8,9),173- 201(in Persian).
3. Baasandorj, D. (2010, November). Faculty development program needs at Mongolian State University: Content and strategies. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from www.ProQuest.com, UMI 3441111838.
4. Bradley, A.B., Chyka, P.A., Fitzgerald, W.L., Hak, L.J., Miller, D., Parker, R.B., Phelps, S.J., Wood, G.C., & Gourley, D.R. (2006). A comprehensive approach to faculty development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(2), 1-6.
5. Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
6. Caffarella, R.S., & Zinn, L.F. (1999). Professional development for faculty: A conceptual framework of barriers and supports. Innovative Higher Education, 4(23).
7. Cheetman, G., & Chivers, G. (1996). Towrads a holistic model of professional competence. Journal of European Industrial Training, 20(5), 20-30.
8. Conklin, M.H., & Dessele, S.P. (2007). Job turnover intentions among pharmacy faculty. American Journal of Pharmacetical Education, Alexandria, (71) 4, 1-9.
9. Deci, E., & Ryan, R. (2000). The “what” and “why” of the goal pursuits. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 212-219.
10. Diaz, M.J.F., & Santaolalla, R.C. (2010). Faculty attitudes and training needs to respond the new European.
11. Drummond, Y., Michele, N., Charlotte, M., & Matthew, N. (2010). A comprehensive faculty development model for nursing education. Journal of Professional Nursing, 26 (3), 152-161.
12. Edjtehadi, M., Ghorchian, N., Jaafari, P., & Shafizadeh, H. (2012). Identifying dimensions and components of faculty member's developments in order to present of a conceptual model. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 17 (4), 21-26 (in Persian).
13. Erdhiem, J., Wang, M., & Zickar, M.J. (2006). Linking the big five personality constructs to rganizational commitment. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 41(5), 959 - 970.
14. Erisen, Y., Celikoz, N., Kapicioglu, M.O.K., Akyol, C., & Atas, S. (2010). The needs for professional of academic staff at vocational education faculties on Turkey. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 1431-1436.
15. Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed.). Translated by: Hadi Jalili, Tehran: Nashre Ney (in Persian).
16. Gandolfo, A. (1997). Identifying lurking alligators: An essay on the ethical dimensions of faculty development. Innovative Higher Education, 22(2), 135-150.
17. Geist, J. R. (2002). Predictors of faculty trust in elementary schools: Enabling bureaucracy, teacher professionalism, and academic press. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). The Ohio State University.
18. Ghasemi, J., Hosseini, M., & Hejazi, Y. (2009). Analysis the effective factors on success of faculty member`s university outreach services in agricultural faculties of Iran. Journal of Higher Education, 2(1), 1-20(in Persian).
19. Gholifar, E., Hedjazi, S., & Hosseyni, S. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis of required professional faculty skills for job success from Iran’s colleges of agriculture faculty member's perspectives. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 16(3), 125-141(in Persian).
20. Gizir, S., & Simsek, H. (2005). Communication in an academic context. Higher Education, 50(2), 197-221.
21. Glauser, P., & Hillary, M. (2010). A case study of university professors ‘perceptions of their experiences with faculty development. Retrieved on 20(6), 2011 from: http://dwb.unl.edu/diss/Glauser/Glauser.pdf.
22. Guff, M. (1976). Stage well- desigened saturday session and they will com technology connection. Retrieved from www.ambpeds.org.
23. Hassani, M. (2014). Developing a structural model for evaluation of faculty members core competencies in Urmia University (using of analytic hierarchy process). Quarterly Journal of Career & Organi- zational Counseling, 6(18), 55-75.
24. Horta, H. (2009). Holding a post - doctoral position before becoming a faculty member: Does it bring benefits for the scholarly enterprise. Higher Education (58), 689-721.
25. Hosseini, S.M. (2000). Strategies and methods to promote and develop the capabilities and skills of faculty in universities, Proceedings of the First Seminar of Higher Education in Iran. Tehran: Allameh Tabatabaei University, 41-71 (in Persian).
26. Jamshidi, L. (2007). The study of faculty members’ growth in a big state university and the way to progress it continuously. (Master's dissertation). Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran (in Persian).
27. Kelchtermans, G. (2009). Who I am in how I teach is the message. Prospects of change in higher education. Towards new qualities and relevance: Festschrift for Matthias Wesseler (pp. 161–171). Frankfurt a. M.: IKO-Verlag.
28. Keller, H. (2001). The new demographics of higher educations. 24(3), 219-235.
29. Laursen, S., & Rocque, B. (2009). Faculty development for institutional change: Lessons from an advance project. The Magazine of Higher Learning,41(2).
30. McLean, M., Cilliers, F., & Van Wyk, J. M. (2008). Faculty development: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. Medical Teacher, 30(6), 555-584.
31. Mesarosova, M., & Mesaros, P. (2012). Learning to learn competency and its relationship to cognitive competencies of university students. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 4273-4278.
32. Mohammadpour, A. (2010). Methods the way. Tehran: Sociologists (in Persian).
33. Mohebzadegan, Y., Pardakhtchi, M.H., Ghahramani, M., & Farasatkhah, M., (2014). Developing a model for faculty development approach based on grounded theory. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education,19 (4), 1-25(in Persian).
34. Nazarzadeh, M., Zare, J., PoorKarimi, J., Abel, KH., & Zaker Salehi, G. H. (2016). Faculty competence in international exchange programs. Approach Journal, Issue 63(in Persian).
35. Nourshahi, N. )2014). Factors affecting the professional development of faculty and offer ways to improve it. Quarterly Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 20(3), 95-120(in Persian).
36. Pourkarimi, J. (2009). Desighn a model for faculty development in Jahad Daneshgahi. (Doctoral dissertation). Tehran: Tarbiat Moalem University (in Persian. (
37. Qiuyan, T., & Qin, H. (2009). Analysis on the competency model of the lecturers in the application oriented university. Retrieved from www.seiofbluemountain.com.
38. Resnik, D. B. (1983). The ethics of science. NY: Rout Ledge.
39. Roelofs, E., & Sanders, P. (2007). Towards a framework for assessing teacher competence. European Journal of Vocational Training, 40(1), 123-139.
40. Roscoe, J. (2010). Continuing professional development in higher education. Human Resource Development International, 5(1), 3-9.
41. Rose Grant, M. (2002). Faculty development in publicly supported two- year colleges, community college. Journal of Research and Practice, 793-807.
42. Sadeghi, N. (2008). An approach to continuous professional development of teachers: Applications of focus groups interviews. Journal of Psychology and Educational Sciences, 38 (2), 47-75 (in Persian).
43. Schmidt, M. (2010, August). Development and validation of a competency model for pre‐service teachers. Paper presented at the second meeting of the earli sig18 Educational Effectiveness, Leuven, 25‐27 August.
44. Sharifi, S., Salimi, G., & Ahmadi, A. (2011). Studying the relationship between personality traits and organizational commitment of principals and teachers in elementary schools, middle and high Khansar city. New Approaches in Educational Management, 1(4), 6-81 (in Persian).
45. Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundation of the new reform. Harward Educational Review, 57(1), 1-22.
46. Strauss & Corbin (2011). Basics of qualitative research. Translated by: Ebrahim Afshar. Tehran: Reed Publishing (in Persian).
47. Tahazadeh, M. (2013). Organizational loyalty. Wave Magazine Year, 6 (in Persian).
48. Tschannen-Moran, M. (2009). Fostering teacher professionalism in schools: The role of leadership orientation and trust. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 417-447.
49. Verginica, N. (2012). Professional development of the university teacher inventory of methods necessary for continuing training. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33,1003 - 1007.
50. Wangyi, D. (2006). The structure dimensions of the competency of the college teachers. Exploration of the Higher Education, 4, 89-92.
51. Zahedi, S., & Bazargan, A. (2014). Opinion of faculty members about needs their professional development and practices. Journal of Research and Planning in Higher Education, 67, 89-96 (in Persian).
52. Zahedi, S., & Bazargan, A. (2014). Take the concept of professional development of faculty and successful experiences in planning and implementation. A Higher Education, 21, 7-26 (in Persian).