نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری برنامه‌ریزی توسعه آموزش عالی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 استادیار دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

4 دانشیار دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه الزهراء

چکیده

رویکرد قابلیت حدود دو دهه است که به­ عنوان چارچوبی جامع‌نگر برای هدایت کاوش‌های کیفی در حوزه عدالت در آموزش عالی به­ کار رفته است. به‌رغم پژوهش‌های قابل‌توجه صورت‌گرفته در این حوزه، هنوز دامنه قابلیت‌های اساسی مورد نیاز برای تحقق عدالت در دسترسی به آموزش عالی و حین تحصیل دانشگاهی روشن نیست و گستره عوامل تبدیلی مؤثر بر این قابلیت‌ها تعیین نشده است. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی دامنه قابلیت‌های اساسی، عوامل تبدیلی و منابع لازم برای دانشجویان و ارائه تعریف روشنی از آنها بود. در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش فراترکیب کیفی به­ صورت نظام‌مند پژوهش‌های منتشرشده در پایگاه‌های معتبر ملی و بین‌المللی از سال 2000 تا 2019 میلادی بررسی شد و تعداد 88 مقاله برای مرور اولیه به ­دست آمد و با در نظر گرفتن معیارهای ورود و خروج از مطالعه، تعداد 20 مقاله به­ صورت تمام‌متن بررسی شد. تحلیل مقالات مد نظر و مقایسه با مطالعات مشابه نشان داد که به­منظور تحقق عدالت در دسترسی و تحصیل دانشجویان در دانشگاه، تأمین 12 قابلیت شامل استدلال عملی، تاب‌آوری آموزشی، همبستگی، داشتن آرزو، داشتن صدا، آمادگی یادگیری، دانش و تخیل، روابط و شبکه‌های اجتماعی، احترام و کرامت، ایمنی و انسجام جسمانی، انسجام عاطفی و شایستگی زبانی ضروری است. در این خصوص، عوامل گوناگون فردی، اجتماعی و محیطی اثرگذار هستند که لزوم توجه دانشگاه را به تفاوت‌های دانشجویان و تنوع نیازهای آنان و همچنین زمینه‌های اجتماعی بیرون دانشگاه ایجاب می‌کند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The capability approach and equity in higher education: A meta-synthesis of students capabilities

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Mahdi 1
  • Mohammad Yemeni Douzzi Sorkhabi 2
  • Morteza Rezaeizadeh 3
  • Morteza Monadi 4

1 Doctoral student in Higher Education Development Planning, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

4 Associate professor, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The capability approach has been used for nearly two decades as a holistic framework for guiding qualitative inquiries on equity in higher education. Despite significant research in this area, the scope of the basic capabilities needed for the realization of equity in access to higher education and during university education has not yet been clarified, and the extent of the factors influencing these capabilities has not been determined. The aim of the present study was to identify the scope of basic capabilities, conversion factors, and necessary resources for students, and provide a clear definition of them. In this study, using a qualitative meta-synthesis method, studies published in reputable national and international databases from 2000 to 2019 were reviewed. A total of 88 articles were identified for initial review. Considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 articles were full-text reviewed. The analysis of the articles and comparing them with similar studies showed that in order to achieve equity in accessing to and studying at the university, providing   following 12 capabilities are essential: practical reasoning, educational resilience, affiliation, aspirations, having a voice, learning disposition, knowledge and imagination, social relations and social networks, respect and dignity, safety and physical cohesion, emotional integrity, and language competencies. In this regard, various individual, social and environmental factors are influential that necessitate the university's attention to the differences between students and the diversity of their needs, as well as the social contexts outside the university.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Higher Education
  • capability approach
  • Equity in higher education
  • Equal access
  • Qualitative meta-synthesis
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