1. Ahier, J., Beck, J., & Moore, R. (2003). Graduate citizens? Issues of citizenship and higher education. London: Routledge Farmer.
2. Al-Mubaraki, H., Muhammad, A., & Busler, M. (2015). Innovation and entrepreneurship powerful tools for a modern knowledge-based economy. Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London.
3. Audretsch, D.B., & Feldman, M.P. (1996). R&D spillovers and the geography of innovation and production. American Economic Review, 86(4), 253-273.
4. Barnett, R. (2007). Recovering the civic university. In L. McIlrath and I. MacLabhrainn (eds.). Higher education and civic engagement: International perspectives (pp 25-36). Aldershot: Ashgate.
5. Barth, T.D. (2011). The idea of a green new deal in a quintuple helix model of knowledge, know- how and innovation. International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development (IJSESD), 2(1).
6. Boland, J. (2006). Pedagogies for civic engagement in Irish higher education: Pprinciples and practices in context. In Sandén, M.L. and Zdanevicius, A. (eEds.). Democracy, citizenship and higher education: Ddialogue between universities and community. Kaunus, Lithuania: Vytautas Magnus University.
7. Brennan, J., & Naidoo, R. (2008). Higher education and the achievement (and/or prevention) of equity and social justice. Higher Education, 56 (3), 287-302.
8. Caniëls, M.C.J., & van den Bosch, H. (2010). The role of higher education institutions in building regional innovation systems. Papers in Regional Science, 90 (2), 271-286.
9. Carayannis, E.G., Barth, T.D., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2012). The quintuple helix innovation model: Global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 1: 2.
10. Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2014). Developed democracies versus emerging autocracies: Arts, democracy, and innovation in quadruple helix innovation systems. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 3:12.
11. Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2011). Mode 3 knowledge production in quadruple helix innovation systems. New York, NY: Springer.
12. Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2009). Mode 3 and ‘quadruple helix: Toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem. International Journal of Technology Management, 46(3), 201-234.
13. Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2010). Triple helix, quadruple helix and quintuple helix and how do knowledge, innovation, and environment relate to each other? International Journal of Social Ecology and Sustainable Development, 1(1), 41-69.
14. Carayannis, E.G., & Campbell, D.F.J. (2013). Mode 3 knowledge production in quadruple helix innovation systems: Quintuple Helix and social ecology. In EG Carayannis, IN Dubina, N. Seel, D.F.J. Campbell, & D. Uzunidis (Eds.). Encyclopedia of creativity, invention, innovation and entrepreneurship (pp. 1293-1300).
15. Cooke, P., Heidenreich, M., & Braczyk, H.J. (Eds) (2004). Regional innovation systems. 2nd ed. (London: Routledge).
16. Entezari, Y. (2015). Building knowledge-based entrepreneurship ecosystems: Case of Iran. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 195, 1206-1215.
17. Etzkowitz, H., & Leydesdorff, L. (2001). The dynamics of innovation: from national systems and “mode 2” to a triple helix of university- industry - government relations. Research Policy, 29 (2), 109-123.
18. Grimaldi, M., Kenney, D.S., & Siegel, M.W. (2011). 30 years after Bayh–Dole: Reassessing academic entrepreneurship. Research Policy, 40, 1045-1057.
19. Hock, H. et al. (2012). Fourth pillar in the transformation of production economy to knowledge economy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 530-536.
20. Huggins, R., & Johnston, A. (2009). The economic and innovation contribution of universities: A regional perspective. Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space. 27(6), 1088-1106.
21. Kerr, C. (1982). The uses of the university. Cambridge, M.A.: Harvard University Press.
22. Konstadakopulos, D. (2004). Learning for innovation in the global knowledge economy: A European and Southeast Asian perspective. Intellect Books Ltd.
23. Leydesdorff L. And Etzkowitz, H. (1996). Emergence of a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations. Science and Public Policy 23, 279–286.
24. Leydesdorff, L., & Etzkowitz, H. (2001). The transformation of university-industry-government relations. Electronic Journal of Sociology, 5, 338-344.
25. Madiès, T., Guellec, D., & Prager, J.C. (2014). Patent Markets in the Global Knowledge Economy: Theory, Empirics and Public Policy Implications. Cambridge University Press.
26. McCowan, T. (2012 a). Is there a universal right to higher education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 60 (2), 111-128.
27. McCowan, T. (2012 b). Opening spaces for citizenship in higher education: Three initiatives in English universities. Studies in Higher Education, 37 (1), 51-67.
28. Oketch, M.O. (2003). Market model for financing higher education in sub Saharan Africa: Examples from Kenya. Higher Education, 16 (3), 313-332.
29. Oketch, M., McCowan, T., & Schendel, R. (2014). The impact of tertiary education on development. A Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development.
30. Peters, M., Besley, T. (A.C.), & Araya, D. (2014). The new development paradigm: Education, knowledge economy and digital futures. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., New York.
31. Rabelo, R.J., & Bernus, P. (2015). A holistic model of building innovation ecosystems. IFAC-Papers online 48-3 (2015) 2250–2257.
32. Singh, M. (2001). Reinserting the public good in higher education transformation. Kagisano, CHE Higher Education Discussion Series, No. 1, November.
33. Tilak, J.B.G. (2008). Transition from higher education as a public good to higher education as a private good: The saga of Indian experience. Journal of Asian Public Policy, 1(2), 220-234.
34. Trani, E.P., & Holsworth, R.D. (2010). The indispensable university higher education, economic development, and the knowledge economy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
35. Trippl, M., Sinozic, T., & Smith, H.L. (2015). The role of universities in regional development: Conceptual models and policy institutions in the UK. Sweden and Austria. European Planning Studies, 23(9), 1722-1740.
36. Valkokari, K. (2015). Business, innovation, and knowledge ecosystems: How they differ and how to survive and thrive within them.Technology Innovation Management Review, 5(8), 17. Retrieved from www.timreview.ca.
37. Zhang, J., & Liang, X.J. (2011). Business ecosystem strategies of mobile network operators in the 3G Era: The case of China mobile. Telecommunications Policy, 35 (2), 156-171.